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M² Measurement

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M² and High-order Modes

M Squared |April 27, 2016

M² is a measurement that was originally designed to determine the quality of a real beam in comparison to a theoretically perfect fundamental mode Gaussian beam (Siegman 1990). Although many lasers are designed to output a fundamental mode Gaussian beam, imperfections and/or cavity design in the laser will often cause superimposed higher-order transverse modes.

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